Findlay, David M. Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
Last reviewed:June 2021
Show previous versions
- Composition and structure
- Bone cells
- Bone formation, growth, and remodeling
- Bone disease
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The hard connective tissue that, together with cartilage, forms the skeleton of humans and other vertebrates. Bone (Fig. 1) is made of calcium phosphate crystals arranged on a protein scaffold and performs a variety of functions. For example, it has a structural and mechanical role, protects vital organs, provides a site for the production of blood cells, and serves as a reserve of calcium. Bone tissue is constantly renewing itself, and it has great capacity to respond to altered stresses and loads and to repair fractures. The formation and remodeling of bone are accomplished by the action of bone cells of the osteoblast (bone-forming cell) and osteoclast (bone-resorbing cell) lineages. The activities of these cells are directed by hormones and other molecules that circulate in the blood as well as regulators that are produced locally in the bone. There are a number of bone diseases that are the subject of vigorous research. See also: Blood; Calcium; Connective tissue; Hormone; Protein; Skeletal system
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information