Berner, Elizabeth K. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Berner, Robert A. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Carbon cycle
- Human perturbation of carbon cycle
- Terrestrial nitrogen cycle
- Oceanic nitrogen cycle
- Phosphorus cycle
- Nutrients in lakes
- Biogeochemical sulfur cycle
- Biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric oxygen
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The study of the cycling of chemicals between organisms and the surface environment of the Earth. The chemicals either can be taken up by organisms and used for growth and synthesis of living matter or can be processed to obtain energy. The chemical composition of plants and animals indicates which elements, known as nutrient elements, are necessary for life. The principal element composition of land plants is shown in the table. The most abundant nutrient elements, carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), supplied by the environment in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), are usually present in excess. The other nutrient elements, which are also needed for growth, may sometimes be in short supply; in this case they are referred to as limiting nutrients. The two most commonly recognized limiting nutrients are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P).
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information