Biodiversity in Borneo
Wulffraat, Stephan Department of Ecology, World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Last reviewed:August 2019
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- Ecology and conservation
- Discovery of species
- Related Primary Literature
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The biological diversity of different plant and animal species living on the island of Borneo. Borneo is the third largest island in the world. Located in Southeast Asia and straddling the Equator, it is divided among three countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei. The largest part of Borneo, comprising the southern and eastern parts of the island, is Indonesian territory and often referred to as Kalimantan, whereas the northern part belongs to Malaysia (the states of Sarawak and Sabah) and Brunei (Fig. 1). Ecologically, Borneo has a profusion of tropical rainforests and is one of the most important centers of biodiversity in the world, with numerous plant and animal species having evolved on and inhabiting the island. As such, the natural richness and biological diversity of Borneo have attracted scientists, and dozens of new species of plants and animals are being discovered annually. However, it takes much effort to uncover the natural secrets of the island because the interior of the island is a remote area that is difficult to reach. Most of it is very mountainous, and few inland roads exist. See also: Animal evolution; Biodiversity; East Indies; Ecological communities; Island biogeography; Oceanic islands as evolutionary laboratories; Plant evolution; Plant geography; Rainforest; Speciation; Zoogeography
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