Grasshoff, K. Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
Last reviewed:October 2019
- Geologic history
- Oxygen and nutrients
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A semienclosed brackish sea located in a humic zone, with a positive water balance relative to the adjacent ocean (the North Sea and the North Atlantic). The Baltic is connected to the North Sea by the Great Belt (70% of the water exchange), the Øresund (20% of the water exchange), and the Little Belt. The total area of the Baltic is 147,414 mi2 (381,705 km2), its total volume 4982 mi3 (20,764 km3), and its average depth 181 ft (55.2 m). The greatest depth is 1510 ft (459 m), in the Landsort Deep.
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