Danovaro, Roberto Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Gambi, Cristina Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Pusceddu, Antonio Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Dell'Anno, Antonio Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Anoxic ecosystems lying on the deep-sea floor
- Animals living in anoxic conditions
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The oceans host life at all depths and across the widest ranges of environmental conditions (that is, temperature, salinity, oxygen content, and pressure), and the deep oceans may contain most of the world's undiscovered biodiversity. Deep-sea ecosystems host the largest hypoxic (oxygen-deficient) and anoxic (oxygen-free) regions of the biosphere and also host some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth. As a result of the lack of molecular oxygen, some of these extreme systems were assumed to be inhabited by viruses and prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), as well as protozoa, which can live under permanently anoxic conditions. In addition, unicellular eukaryotes (for example, protozoan ciliates) can be found in anoxic marine systems and recent findings have indicated that some benthic foraminiferans can be highly adapted to life without oxygen. However, until recently, there was no proof of the presence of metazoans (multicellular organisms) that can live their entire life cycle under permanently anoxic conditions.
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 42 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information