Hartgens, Fred Department of Surgery, Sports Medicine Centre Maastricht, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Last reviewed:March 2021
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- Androgenic-anabolic steroids and athletes, published November 2009:Download PDF Get Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Abuse by athletes
- Therapeutic use of androgenic-anabolic steroids
- Mechanisms of action
- Effects on body composition
- Skeletal muscle mass
- Muscle fiber
- Effects on performance
- Mixed strength–endurance
- Health effects
- Reproductive system
- Cardiovascular system
- Psyche and behavior
- Other health effects
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
A synthetic manufactured drug derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. Androgenic-anabolic steroids, often termed simply as anabolic steroids, are artificially produced testosterone variants. They can provide a number of medical benefits when used properly. However, they have adverse side effects in many instances, and the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids by athletes has been controversial (Fig. 1). See also: Androgen; Hormone; Medicine; Steroid
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