Thomson, Robb M. Department of Materials Science, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York.
Murray, Joanne L. Alloy Phase Diagram Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce.
Bhansali, Kirit J. Metallurgy Division, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
- Phase Diagrams
- Two-phase equilibrium
- Three-phase reaction
- Minimization of Gibbs energy
- Ternary and multicomponent systems
- Nonequilibrium processes
- Size and Valence Factors
- Size factor
- Valence factor
- Electron Compounds
- Structure and electron density
- Brillouin zones
- Order-Disorder in Alloys
- Long- and short-range order
- Variation with temperature
- Transition temperature
- Detection of order
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
Metals in actual commercial use are almost exclusively alloys, and not pure metals, since it is possible for the designer to realize an extensive variety of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties in the product by varying the metallic composition of the alloy. As a case in point, steel alloys are more ductile, with greater strength and better corrosion properties than commercially pure or cast iron. In general, the highly purified single crystal of a metal is very soft and malleable, with high electrical conductivity, while the alloy is usually harder and may have a much lower conductivity. The hardness of the alloy will vary with the particular heat treatment used. For commercial applications of alloys and other information See also: Alloy .
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