Studenny, John CMC Electronics Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
- Flight Planning
- Navigation Charts
- Operational Air Navigation
- En route
- VOR navigation
- Mean sea level (MSL) altitude
- Barometric altitude
- Radar altitude
- GPS altitude
- SBAS altitude
- Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM)
- Additional Navigation Aids and Systems
- Flight management system (FMS)
- Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
- Terrestrial enhancements of GNSS
- Area navigation (RNAV)
- Inertial navigation system (INS)
- Loran C
- Microwave landing system (MLS)
- Nondirectional beacon (NDB)
- Doppler velocity system (DVS) radar
- Additional Readings
A discipline that combines the means to know the location and heading of an aircraft with respect to some map or coordinate system, with guidance which means steering the aircraft along some desired path toward a destination. The construction of the desired path is done with respect to the same a map or coordinate system used for location. In civil aviation, the coordinate system that is becoming a de facto standard is the World Geodetic System of 1984 (WGS-84). This is largely due to the fact that positioning in the Global Positioning System (GPS) is based on this mapping and coordinate system.
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