Proteins, evolution of
Mulligan, Pamela K. Department of Biochemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Last reviewed:January 2021
- Classical versus protein-derived phylogenies
- Types of proteins studied
- Rate of evolution
- Mitochondrial cytochrome c
- Globin genes
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The progressive changes over time in the shape, function, and composition of polypeptide organic macromolecules. Proteins are large organic molecules that are involved in all aspects of cell structure and function. They are made up of polypeptide chains, each constructed from a basic set of 20 amino acids, covalently linked in specific sequences. Each amino acid is coded by three successive nucleotide residues in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain, which determines the structure and function of the protein molecule, is thus specified by a sequence of nucleotide residues in DNA. See also: Amino acids; Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); Nucleotide; Peptide; Protein
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