Gunkler, Albert A. Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan.
Cicerone, Ralph J. Atmospheric Chemistry and Aeronomy Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
Last reviewed:January 2020
- Dissolved halides
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The halogen family consists of the elements fluorine, F; chlorine, Cl; bromine, Br; iodine, I; and astatine, At. Estimates of the relative abundances of these elements in seawater in parts per million, and in the lithosphere (Earth's crust to a depth of 10 mi or 16 km) are given in Table 1. From direct measurements it is also known that all the halogen elements except astatine exist in the Earth's atmosphere.
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