Weichert, Charles K. College of Arts and Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Torrey, Theodore W. Department of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.
Forster, Roy P. Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.
Last reviewed:November 2019
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- Comparative anatomy
- Anamniote kidneys
- Amniote kidneys
- Urinary bladder
- Regulation of volume
- Electrolyte balance
- Movement of water
- Nitrogenous end products
- Urine concentration
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The system consisting of the kidneys, urinary ducts, and bladder. The urinary system (Fig. 1) functions in the elaboration and excretion of urine in vertebrates. Similarities are not particularly evident among the many and varied types of excretory organs found in vertebrates. The variations that are encountered are undoubtedly related to problems with which vertebrates have experienced in adapting to different environmental conditions. See also: Adaptation (biology); Excretion; Kidney; Urinary bladder; Urinary tract disorders; Urine; Urogenital system; Vertebrata
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