Steinbaum, Jeremy Department of Surgery, University of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.
Imbembo, Anthony L. Department of Surgery, University of Maryland Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.
Last reviewed:September 2020
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- Gastrointestinal surgery
- Vascular surgery
- Transplant surgery
- Surgical oncology
- Trauma and critical care surgery
- Cardiothoracic surgery
- Plastic surgery
- Pediatric surgery
- Orthopedic surgery
- Neurological surgery
- Robotic surgery
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of diseases and disorders by operative intervention. Surgery is an important medical field involving operative incision or manipulation in order to cure or mend a detrimental condition or injury in a patient (Fig. 1). Surgical procedures may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. For example, the goal of surgery might be to relieve the mechanical obstruction of a tubular organ, such as the intestine, or to repair or replace structures in the heart. Surgery might also be used to remove a diseased or injured organ that threatens a patient's survival, such as a gangrenous appendix or inflamed gallbladder, or a malignant tumor that cannot be remedied by other medical treatment. See also: Disease; Medicine
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