Graves, Arthur H. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut.
Davis, Kenneth P. School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
- Eastern species
- Western species
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
An evergreen tree belonging to the genus Picea of the pine family. Spruce needles are single, usually four-sided, and borne on little peglike projections; the cones are pendulous. Resin ducts in the wood may be seen with a magnifying lens, but they are fewer than in Pinus. The Janka hardness for various spruce trees is 480–520 lb-force (218–236 kg-force); the density is 26–29 lb/ft3 (416–465 kg/m3). See also: Evergreen plants; Pinales; Pine; Resin; Tree
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