The name applied to any species of the genus Santalum of the family Santalaceae. The true sandalwood (Indian sandalwood) is the hard, close-grained aromatic heartwood of a root-parasitic tree, S. album, of the Indo-Malayan region. This fragrant wood is used in ornamental carving and cabinetwork, and is a source of certain perfumes. The odor of the wood is an insect repellent; on this account, the wood is used often in making boxes and chests. The Janka hardness for S. album is 1680 lb-force (762 kg-force); its density is 59 lb/ft3 (945 kg/m3). Within the sandalwood family Santalaceae, other notable species are S. ellipticum (coast sandalwood of Hawaii) [see illustration] and S. spicatum (Australian sandalwood). In addition, the fragrant wood of a number of species in other families bears the same name, but none of these is the real sandalwood. See also: Essential oils; Forest and forestry; Parasitology; Santalales; Tree
Strausbaugh, Perry D. Department of Botany, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Core, Earl L. Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Related Primary Literature
- T. H. Kim et al., Aromatic constituents from the heartwood of Santalum album L., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 53(6):641–644, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.53.641
- U. Subasinghe, M. Gamage, and D. S. Hettiarachchi, Essential oil content and composition of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) in Sri Lanka, J. Forest. Res., 24(1):127–130, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-013-0331-3
- C. R. Elevitch (ed.), Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands: Their Culture, Environment, and Use, Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Hōlualoa, HI, 2006
- C. G. Jones and J. A. Plummer, Sandalwood, Compend. Transgenic Crop Plants, 9:309–320, 2009
- G. Nelson, The Trees of Florida: A Reference and Field Guide, 2d ed., Pineapple Press, Sarasota, FL, 2011
- A. K. Sharma, S. Wahab, and R. Srivastava (eds.), Agriculture Diversification: Problems and Perspectives, I.K. International, New Delhi, India, 2010
- M. G. Simpson, Plant Systematics, 2d ed., Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2010
- Santalum-A Fascinating Genus