MacDaniels, Laurence H. Horticultural Section, School of Integrative Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Last reviewed:January 2021
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The edible seed of more than a dozen species of evergreen cone-bearing trees in the genus Pinus, native to the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. The important pine nut–producing species are the stone pine (P. pinea) of southern Europe; the Swiss stone pine (P. cembra), which is native to the Swiss Alps and eastward through Siberia to Mongolia; and the piñon pine (P. cembroides var. edulis) of the arid regions of the southwestern United States and Mexico. The seeds or nuts (Fig. 1), variable in size according to species, are borne in cones that take 3–4 years to develop. See also: Pinales; Pine; Seed; Tree
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