Milner, Andrew Vertebrate Palaeontology Section, Department of Biological Sciences, Birbeck College, London, United Kingdom.
Estes, Richard Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
Last reviewed:August 2020
- Sound perception
- Phylogeny and fossil record
- Related Primary Literature
- Additional Reading
The taxon that includes all modern amphibians (living and fossil frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, and caecilians). The taxon class Amphibia comprises the Lissamphibia and their more distant extinct relatives. Early amphibian-grade tetrapods are now categorized as stem-tetrapods (outside the lissamphibian-amniote relationship), stem-amphibians (related to modern lissamphibians), or stem-amniotes (early amphibian-grade relatives of modern reptiles, birds, and mammals). The precise position of many early amphibian-grade tetrapods in relation to the living lissamphibians and amniotes is controversial. See also: Amniota; Amphibia; Anura; Apoda; Tetrapoda; Urodela
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