Salam, Abdus Formerly, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, Trieste, Italy. Nobelist.
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- Properties of interactions
- Gravitational interaction
- Electromagnetic interaction
- Weak nuclear interactions
- Strong nuclear interaction
- Gauge interactions
- Unification of interactions
- Gravitation and electromagnetism
- Electroweak interaction
- Electronuclear interaction
- Consequences of symmetry breaking
- Prospects for including gravity
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
Fundamental forces that act between elementary particles, of which all matter is assumed to be composed. The fundamental interactions describe how matter behaves on the smallest subatomic scales and the largest cosmological scales (Fig. 1). See also: Atom; Elementary particle; Matter (physics); Universe
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