Atomic structure and spectra
Sellin, Ivan A. Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.
- Electromagnetic nature of atoms
- Planetary atomic models
- Scattering experiments
- Bohr Atom
- Quantization of hydrogen atom
- Elliptical orbits
- Multielectron Atoms
- Exclusion principle
- Spin-orbit coupling
- Coupling schemes
- Spectrum of Hydrogen
- Nuclear Magnetism and Hyperfine Structure
- Investigations with tunable lasers
- Isotope shift
- Lamb Shift and Quantum Electrodynamics
- Doppler Spread
- Radiationless Transitions
- Spectroscopy of Highly Ionized Atoms
- Relativistic Dirac Theory and Superheavy Elements
- Uncertainty Principle and Natural Width
- Cooling and Stopping Atoms and Ions
- Successful Explanations and Unresolved Problems
- Quantum jumps
- Photon antibunching
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The arrangement of the constituents of an atom and the manner in which they interact to form a system (the atomic structure), and the patterns of light frequencies emitted and absorbed by atoms, whereby this atomic structure may be elucidated (the atomic spectra).The idea that matter is subdivided into discrete building blocks called atoms, which are not divisible any further, dates back to the Greek philosopher Democritus. His teachings of the fifth century b.c. are commonly accepted as the earliest authenticated ones concerning what has come to be called atomism by students of Greek philosophy. The weaving of the philosophical thread of atomism into the analytical fabric of physics began in the late eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries. Robert Boyle is generally credited with introducing the concept of chemical elements, the irreducible units which are now recognized as individual atoms of a given element. In the early nineteenth century John Dalton developed his atomic theory, which postulated that matter consists of indivisible atoms as the irreducible units of Boyle's elements, that each atom of a given element has identical attributes, that differences among elements are due to fundamental differences among their constituent atoms, that chemical reactions proceed by simple rearrangement of indestructible atoms, and that chemical compounds consist of molecules which are reasonably stable aggregates of such indestructible atoms. See also: Chemistry
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