Franco, Nuno Henrique Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, e Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Last reviewed:February 2018
- Historical perspective
- Animal rights movement
- Replacement, reduction, and refinement
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The use of live nonhuman animals for scientific research and experimentation. Animal testing has been a cornerstone of biomedical research, having contributed greatly to the understanding of human biology, to the unraveling of the complex underlying causes and effects of disease, and to the development and testing of effective and safe means of diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of sentient beings as disease models and test subjects (Fig. 1) raises a significant ethical dilemma between animal harm and human benefits. Faced with this dilemma, the mainstream ethical, social, and political stance has been to deem it acceptable only when no alternatives are available, if aimed at answering meaningful scientific or medical questions, and provided animal harm is minimized. Some individuals, however, advocate that no animal use in science is morally justified, regardless of any potential benefits. Further fueling the discussion, the medical value of animal experiments has been increasingly challenged. Scientists, companies, regulators, and funders are responding by improving transparency regarding why and how animals are used in science, while working continuously to raise standards and make animal experiments more reliable, humane, and relevant. With this as a background, the 3Rs principle for replacement, reduction, and refinement offers a meaningful and ever-improving approach to ease the pressing ethical and scientific challenges at hand. See also: Bioethics; Biology; Biotechnology; Experiment; Medicine; Pharmaceuticals testing; Scientific methods
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 43 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information