Bunshah, Rointan F. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
- Extractive metallurgy
- Melting processes
- Casting of shaped products
- Vacuum degassing of molten steel
- Heat treatment
- Surface treatment
- Vapor deposition
- Ultrafine powders
- Space processing
- Other processes
- Links to Primary Literature
- Additional Readings
The making, shaping, and treating of metals, alloys, and intermetallic and refractory metal compounds in a gaseous environment where the composition and partial pressures of the various components of the gas phase are carefully controlled. In many instances, this environment is a vacuum ranging from subatmospheric to ultrahigh vacuum (less than 760 torr or 101 kilopascals to 10−12 torr or 10−10 pascal). In other cases, reactive gases are deliberately added to the environment to produce the desired reactions, such as in reactive evaporation and sputtering processes and chemical vapor deposition. The processes in vacuum metallurgy involve liquid/solid, vapor/solid, and vapor/liquid/solid transitions. In addition, they include testing of metals in controlled environments. The table lists the processes, pressure ranges, and gas environments.
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