Welhener, Herb Independent Mining Consultants, Inc., Tucson, Arizona.
Marek, John M. Independent Mining Consultants, Inc., Tucson, Arizona.
- Mining operations
- Waste disposal
- Computer technology
- Additional Readings
The process of extracting beneficial minerals by surface excavations. Open-pit mining is a type of surface excavation which often takes the shape of an inverted cone (Fig. 1); the shape of the mine opening varies with the shape of the mineral deposit. Other types of surface mining are specific to the type and shape of the mineral deposit. See also: Coal mining; Placer mining; Surface mining
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