Maggenti, Armand R. Division of Nematology, University of California, Davis, California.
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An order of nematodes in which the oral opening is generally surrounded by three or six labia; in some taxa, labia are absent, but the cephalic sensilla are always evident. Usually there are eight cephalic or labial sensilla; the submedians may be fused and then only four sensilla are seen. The stoma varies from being completely reduced to spacious or globose. The esophagus varies from club shaped to nearly cylindrical, never rhabditoid. There may be posterior esophageal or anterior intestinal ceca. The collecting tubules of the excretory system may extend posteriorly and anteriorly. Males generally have two spicules; however, in some taxa, there may be none or only one. The gubernaculum may also be present or absent. Although females generally have two ovaries, multiple ovaries do occur. The number of uteri is also variable: two, three, four, or six. Phasmids are sometimes large and pocketlike. Reportedly, the larvae lack a stomatal hook or barb. See also: Nemata (nematoda)
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